Patterns of Emergency Care for Possible Acute Coronary Syndrome Among Patients with Chest Pain or Shortness of Breath at a Tanzanian Referral Hospital

Authors: {'first_name': 'Julian T.', 'last_name': 'Hertz'},{'first_name': 'Godfrey L.', 'last_name': 'Kweka'},{'first_name': 'Gerald S.', 'last_name': 'Bloomfield'},{'first_name': 'Alexander T.', 'last_name': 'Limkakeng'},{'first_name': 'Zak', 'last_name': 'Loring'},{'first_name': 'Gloria', 'last_name': 'Temu'},{'first_name': 'Blandina T.', 'last_name': 'Mmbaga'},{'first_name': 'Charles J.', 'last_name': 'Gerardo'},{'first_name': 'Francis M.', 'last_name': 'Sakita'}
Publication year: 

ackground: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is thought to be a rare diagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known about diagnostic practices for patients with possible ACS symptoms in the region.

Objective: To describe current care practices for patients with ACS symptoms in Tanzania to identify factors that may contribute to ACS under-detection.

Methods: Emergency department patients with chest pain or shortness of breath at a Tanzanian referral hospital were prospectively observed. Medical histories were obtained, and diagnostic workups, treatments, and diagnoses were recorded. Five-year risk of cardiovascular events was calculated via the Harvard National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey risk score. Telephone follow-ups were conducted 30 days after enrollment.

Results: Of 339 enrolled patients, the median (IQR) age was 60 (46, 72) years, 252 (74.3%) had hypertension, and 222 (65.5%) had >10% five-year risk of cardiovascular event. The median duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 7 days, and 314 (92.6%) reported symptoms worsened by exertion. Of participants, 170 (50.1%) received an electrocardiogram, and 9 (2.7%) underwent cardiac biomarker testing. There was no univariate association between five-year cardiovascular risk and decision to obtain an electrocardiogram (p = 0.595). The most common physician-documented diagnoses were symptomatic hypertension (104 patients, 30.7%) and heart failure (99 patients, 29.2%). Six patients (1.8%) were diagnosed with ACS, and 3 (0.9%) received aspirin. Among 284 (83.8%) patients completing 30-day follow-up, 20 (7.0%) had died.

Conclusions: Many patients with ACS risk factors present to the emergency department of a Tanzanian referral hospital with possible ACS symptoms, but marked delays in care-seeking are common. Complete diagnostic workups for ACS are uncommon, ACS is rarely diagnosed or treated with evidence-based therapies, and mortality in patients with these symptoms is high. Physician practices may be contributing to ACS under-detection in Tanzania, and interventions are needed to improve ACS care.