‘Repel all biters’: an enhanced collection of endophilic Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in CDC light-traps, from the Kagera Region of Tanzania, in the presence of a combination mosquito net impregnated with piperonyl butoxide and permethrin

Corey LeClairEmail authorView ORCID ID profile, Judith Cronery, Enock Kessy, Elsa V. E. Tomás, Yohannes Kulwa, Franklin W. Mosha, Mark Rowland, Natacha Protopopoff and J. Derek Charlwood
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Mosquito nets containing synergists designed to overcome metabolic resistance mechanisms in vectors have been developed. These may enhance excitability in the mosquitoes and affect how they respond to CDC light-traps. Investigating the behaviour of vectors of disease in relation to novel mosquito nets is, therefore, essential for the design of sampling and surveillance systems.


In an initial experiment in Muleba, Tanzania, nine bedrooms from three housing clusters were sampled. CDC light-traps were operated indoors next to occupied untreated nets (UTN), Olyset® long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and Olyset Plus® LLIN containing piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist. Nets were rotated daily between the nine rooms over nine nights. A further series of experiments using the nets on alternate nights in a single room was undertaken during the short rains. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were collected in CDC light-traps, a window-trap and Furvela tent-trap. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).


In the initial experiment 97.7% of the 310 An. gambiae s.l. were An. gambiae s.s., the remainder being Anopheles arabiensis. The number of mosquitoes collected from 81 light-trap collections was greater in the presence of an Olyset [density rate ratio 1.81, 95% CI (1.22–2.67), p = 0.003] relative to an UTN. In a second experiment, in the wet season 84% of the 180 An. gambiae s.l. identified were An. arabiensis. The number of An. gambiae s.l. collected from a light-trap compared to a tent-trap was significantly higher when an Olyset Plus net was used compared to an UTN. Survival of the mosquitoes in the window trap was not reduced by the use of an Olyset Plus net in the bedroom relative to an Olyset net.


Mosquitoes entering bedrooms, even those susceptible to pyrethroids, were not killed by contact with an Olyset Plus LLIN. The enhanced numbers of An. gambiae or An. arabiensis collected in light-traps when a treated net is used requires further experimentation and may be because of a heightened escape reaction on the part of the mosquito.