Bronchoalveolar neutrophils, interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 and interleukin-7 in AIDS-associated tuberculosis

Kibiki,G.S.; Myers,L.C.; Kalambo,C.F.; Hoang,S.B.; Stoler,M.H.; Stroup,S.E.; Houpt,E.R. Clinical and experimental Immunology, 2007
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During advanced AIDS tuberculosis (TB) often presents atypically with smear-negative and non-cavitary disease, yet immune features associated with this change are poorly characterized. We examined the local immune response in a cohort of Tanzanian AIDS-associated TB patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. TB infection was confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid by culture, probe and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among TB patients CD4 count correlated positively with the extent of cavitary disease as well as BAL TB load (qPCR C(T)). TB patients had significantly higher granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) than non-TB patients, and those with non-cavitary TB had significantly higher BAL interferon gamma-inducible protein (IP-10) and interleukin (IL)-7 than those with cavities. BAL neutrophils were as prevalent as monocytes/macrophages or epithelial cells, and immunohistochemistry revealed that neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and epithelial cells were major sources of the IP-10 and IL-7. These data suggest a dysregulated cytokine profile may contribute to the TB of advanced AIDS