Dynamics and monitoring of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across mainland Tanzania from 1997 to 2017: a systematic review

Deokary Joseph Matiya, Anitha B. Philbert, Winifrida Kidima and Johnson J. Matowo
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Malaria still claims substantial lives of individuals in Tanzania. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spray (IRS) are used as major malaria vector control tools. These tools are facing great challenges from the rapid escalating insecticide resistance in malaria vector populations. This review presents the information on the dynamics and monitoring of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in mainland Tanzania since 1997. The information is important to policy-makers and other vector control stakeholders to reflect and formulate new resistance management plans in the country.


Reviewed articles on susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in malaria vectors to insecticides across mainland Tanzania were systematically searched from the following databases: PubMed, Google scholar, HINARI and AGORA. The inclusion criteria were articles published between 2000 and 2017, reporting susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides, mechanisms of resistance in the mainland Tanzania, involving field collected adult mosquitoes, and mosquitoes raised from the field collected larvae. Exclusion criteria were articles reporting insecticide resistance in larval bio-assays, laboratory strains, and unpublished data. Reviewed information include year of study, malaria vectors, insecticides, and study sites. This information was entered in the excel sheet and analysed.


A total of 30 articles met the selection criteria. The rapid increase of insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors across the country was reported since year 2006 onwards. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) was detected in at least one compound in each class of all recommended insecticide classes. However, the Anopheles funestus s.l. is highly resistant to pyrethroids and DDT. Knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism in An. gambiae s.l. is widely studied in the country. Biochemical resistance by detoxification enzymes (P450s, NSE and GSTs) in An. gambiae s.l. was also recorded. Numerous P450s genes associated with metabolic resistance were over transcribed in An. gambiae s.l. collected from agricultural areas. However, no study has reported mechanisms of insecticide resistance in the An. funestus s.l. in the country.


This review has shown the dynamics and monitoring of insecticide resistance in malaria vector populations across mainland Tanzanian. This highlights the need for devising improved control approaches of the malaria vectors in the country.