Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease among children under five years of age in Africa: A systematic review

James Samwel Ngocho , Best Magoma, Gaudencia Alois Olomi, Michael Johnson Mahande, Sia Emmanueli Msuya, Marien Isaäk de Jonge, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga
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Despite the widespread implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading cause of severe pneumonia associated with mortality among children less than 5 years of age worldwide, with the highest mortality rates recorded in Africa and Asia. However, information on the effectiveness and prevalence of vaccine serotypes post-roll out remains scarce in most African countries. Hence, this systematic review aimed to describe what is known about the decline of childhood invasive pneumococcal disease post-introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa.


This systematic review included articles published between 2009 and 2018 on the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa. We searched PubMed, Scopus and African Index Medicus for articles in English. Studies on implementation programmes of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 10/13, with before and after data from different African countries, were considered eligible. The review followed the procedures published in PROSPERO (ID = CRD42016049192).


In total, 2,280 studies were identified through electronic database research, and only 8 studies were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. Approximately half (n = 3) of these studies were from South Africa. The overall decline in invasive pneumococcal disease ranged from 31.7 to 80.1%. Invasive pneumococcal diseases caused by vaccine serotypes declined significantly, the decline ranged from 35.0 to 92.0%. A much higher decline (55.0–89.0%) was found in children below 24 months of age. Of all vaccine serotypes, the relative proportions of serotypes 1, 5 and 19A doubled following vaccine roll out.