Efficacy of indoor residual spraying with broflanilide (TENEBENAL), a novel meta-diamide insecticide, against pyrethroid-resistant anopheline vectors in northern Tanzania: An experimental hut trial

Janneke Snetselaar ,Mark W. Rowland,Baltazari J. Manunda,Ezekia M. Kisengwa,Graham J. Small,David J. Malone,Franklin W. Mosha,Matthew J. Kirby
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Novel chemistry for vector control is urgently needed to counter insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Here a new meta-diamide insecticide, broflanilide (TENEBENALTM), was evaluated in East African experimental huts in Moshi, northern Tanzania. Two consecutive experimental hut trials with broflanilide 50WP were conducted; the first evaluating the efficacy of three concentrations, 50 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2 using a prototype formulation, and the second trial evaluating an improved formulation. The IRS treatments were applied on both mud and concrete surfaces and efficacy was monitored over time. The mortality, blood-feeding inhibition and exiting behaviour of free-flying wild mosquitoes was compared between treatment arms. Additionally, cone assays with pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant mosquito strains were conducted in the huts to determine residual efficacy. The first trial showed a dosage-mortality response of the prototype formulation and 3–8 months of residual activity, with longer activity on concrete than mud. The second trial with an improved formulation showed prolonged residual efficacy of the 100 mg/m2 concentration to 5–6 months on mud, and mosquito mortality on the concrete surface ranged between 94–100% for the full duration of the trial. In both trials, results with free-flying, wild Anopheles arabiensis echoed the mortality trend shown in cone assays, with the highest dose inducing the highest mortality and the improved formulation showing increased mortality rates. No blood-feeding inhibition or insecticide-induced exiting effects were observed with broflanilide. Broflanilide 50WP was effective against both susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquito strains, demonstrating an absence of cross resistance between broflanilide and pyrethroids. The improved formulation, which has now been branded VECTRONTM T500, resulted in a prolonged residual efficacy. These results indicate the potential of this insecticide as an addition to the arsenal of IRS products needed to maintain both control of malaria and resistance management of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes.