High Carriage Rate of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species among Poultry Meat Vendors in Dar es Salaam: The Urgent Need for Intervention to Prevent the Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens

Lutengano W. Mwanginde,1,2 Mtebe Majigo ,1 Debora C. Kajeguka,3 and Agricola Joachim1
Publication year: 


Bacteria possessing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially E. coli and Klebsiella species, are problematic, particularly in hospitalized patients. Poultry meat vendors are at risk of carrying ESBL-producing bacteria when processing and handling meat products in an unhygienic environment. There is limited information on the carriage rate of ESBL-producing pathogens among poultry meat vendors that necessitated the conduction of the study. 


A cross-sectional study was conducted among poultry meat vendors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants provided rectal swabs in transport media upon instruction. The primary isolation of ESBL-producing bacteria was carried out using MacConkey agar supplemented with ceftazidime. Identification of isolates relied on conventional methods. Double-disk synergy was the method used to confirm ESBL-producing isolates. We performed descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23. A  value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


A total of 300 participants were recruited from five districts, with a mean age of 27.2 ± 6.7 years. The majority was male (67.3%), and 74.7% worked as poultry meat vendors for more than one year. Out of 300 participants, 107 (35.7%) had confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. The majority of confirmed ESBL-producing isolates was E. coli (78.5%). Participants from Ubungo District had significantly higher carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. (48.0%, 95% CI: 34.8–47.7) than Temeke District (21.4%, 95% CI: 13.4–32.4). Only 28.0% of participants had access to latrines at the workplace, and all working areas lacked access to running water. 


The study revealed a relatively high fecal carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. among poultry meat vendors. Poor working environments and hygienic practices are risks for spread of these multidrug-resitant pathogens.