Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in Muheza, Tanzania

Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in Muheza, Tanzania Basiliana Emidi, William N. Kisinza, Robert D. Kaaya, Robert Malima, Franklin W. Mosha
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Background: There has been a rapid emergence in insecticide resistance among mosquito population to commonly used public health insecticides. This situation presents a challenge to chemicals that are currently used to control mosquitoes in sub-Saharan African. Furthermore, there is limited information on insecticide susceptibility status of human-biting mosquitoes in some areas of Tanzania. This study aimed to determine insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in a rural area of north-eastern Tanzania.

Methods: The study was conducted in two villages in Muheza district, Tanzania. Insecticide susceptibility bioassays were performed according to the World Health Organization standard operating procedures on two to five-day old human biting mosquitoes. The mosquitoes of each species were exposed to four classes of insecticides commonly used for malaria vector control. Mosquito mortality rates (%) were determined after 24 hours post insecticide exposure.

Results: Mosquito species tested were Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestusAedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus species. Real-time PCR have showed that the main sibling species of An. gambiae complex and An. funestus group were An. gambiae s. s. (58.2%) and An. funestus s. s. (91.1%), respectively. All mosquitoes, except Ae. aegypti formosus were susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl (0.25%). An. gambiae s. l. was found to be resistant to permethrin (0.75%) but showed possibility of resistance to DDT (4%) and bendiocarb (0.1%). Our findings have shown that, An. funestus was fully susceptible to all insecticide tested.

Conclusion: The present study has revealed different levels of insecticide susceptibility status to four classes of commonly used insecticides in the most common mosquito vectors of human diseases in north-eastern Tanzania. The findings of the present study call for integrated vector control interventions.