Isolated Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Presentation in a YoungMaasai Boy from Northern Tanzania

Case ReportIsolated Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Presentation in a YoungMaasai Boy from Northern TanzaniaJay Lodhia,1Ayesiga Herman,1,2Rune Philemon,2,3Adnan Sadiq,1,4Deborah Mchaile,3and Kondo Chilonga1,2
Publication year: 


 Hydatidosis or hydatid disease is a parasitic infection causedby the tapewormEchinococcus granulosus[1, 2]. It is charac-terized by cystic lesions mainly in the liver [1, 3]. The patho-genesis is due to infestation of a human host byE. granulosusfollowing accidental ingestion of dog waste products contain-ing eggs [1]. We report of a case with a pulmonary hydatidcyst in a four-year-old boy.


Case Presentation 

A four-year-old Maasai boy who was accompanied by hiselder brother presented to the hospital with a one-year pro-gressive history of dry cough and difficulty in breathing tothe extent of compromising the childs physical activityaccompanied by intermittent fever. There was no history oftuberculosis contact or trauma but a positive history of livingwith cattle and dogs. The patient received multiple courses ofantibiotics and herbal medication with no relief.



Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused byEchinoccocusgranulosus. It is endemic in sub-Saharan African countries[4]. Different strains ofE. granulosushave been identifiedbased on their specific intermediate hosts (e.g., sheep, buf-falo, horse, cattle, pigs, camels), and different species ofEchinoccocuscause different diseases in humans, i.e., cysticechinococcosis is caused byE. granulosus sensu strictoandalveolar echinococcosis is caused byE. multilocularis[5].Diagnosis is easily made in endemic areas from the historyand radiologic investigations mostly, as in our case the CTscan gave us a high index of suspicion. Other tests includeimmunoelectrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay for diagnostic and screening purposes [6, 7]. The liveris the most commonly affected organ followed by the lungs,spleen, kidney, and brain. Mortality is not directly related tothe disease but rather due to its complications.



Thoracic hydatid cysts are rare even in endemic areas. Diag-nosis is based upon in-depth history, imaging, and histologicalanalysis. Hydatid cysts have a good prognosis regardless of their size if removed completely without spillage. Hydatiddisease remains to be of public health importance especiallyamong this indigenous tribe (Maasai); therefore, a need ofeducation and prevention is needed.