ITN Mixtures of Chlorfenapyr (Pyrrole) and Alphacypermethrin (Pyrethroid) for Control of Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus

Richard M. Oxborough, Jovin Kitau, Johnson Matowo, Emmanuel Feston, Rajab Mndeme, Franklin W. Mosha, Mark W. Rowland
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Pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and continued efficacy of pyrethroid ITNs is under threat. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action conferring no cross-resistance to existing public health insecticides. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr (CFP) and alphacypermethrin (alpha) may provide additional benefits over chlorfenapyr or alphacypermethrin used alone. An ITN mixture of CFP 100 mg/m2+alpha 25 mg/m2 was compared with CFP 100 mg/m2 and alpha 25 mg/m2 in a small-scale experimental hut trial in an area of wild An. arabiensis. The same treatments were evaluated in tunnel tests against insectary-reared pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Performance was measured in terms of insecticide-induced mortality, and blood-feeding inhibition. Tunnel tests showed that mixtures of CFP 100+ alpha 25 were 1.2 and 1.5 times more effective at killing susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus than either Alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP 100 (P = 0.001) ITNs. Mixtures of CFP100+ alpha 25 were 2.2 and 1.2 times more effective against resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus than either alpha 25 (P = 0.001) or CFP100 (P = 0.003) ITNs. CFP 100+ alpha 25 produced higher levels of blood-feeding inhibition than CFP alone for susceptible (94 vs 46%, P = 0.001) and resistant (84 vs 53%, P = 0.001) strains. In experimental huts the mixture of CFP 100+ Alpha 25 killed 58% of An. arabiensis, compared with 50% for alpha and 49% for CFP, though the differences were not significant. Blood-feeding inhibition was highest in the mixture with a 76% reduction compared to the untreated net (P = 0.001). ITN mixtures of chlorfenapyr and alphacypermethrin should restore effective control of resistant populations of An. gambiae malaria vectors, provide protection from blood-feeding, and may have benefits for resistance management, particularly in areas with low or moderate frequency of pyrethroid resistance. A wash-resistant mixture should be developed urgently.