Large-scale (Phase III) evaluation of broflanilide 50WP (VECTRON™ T500) for indoor residual spraying for malaria vector control in Northeast Tanzania: study protocol for a two-arm, non-inferiority, cluster-randomised community trial

Patrick K. Tungu, Mark W. Rowland, Louisa A. Messenger, Graham J. Small, John Bradley, Janneke Snetselaar, Matthew J. Kirby & Njelembo J. Mbewe
Publication year: 


Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a major method of malaria vector control across sub-Saharan Africa. Effective control is being undermined by the rapid spread of insecticide resistance. There is major investment in development of new insecticides for IRS that possess novel modes of action, long residual activity, low mammalian toxicity and minimal cross-resistance. VECTRON™ T500, a new IRS product containing the active ingredient broflanilide as a 50% wettable powder (WP), has been shown to be efficacious against pyrethroid susceptible and resistant vector species on mud and concrete substrates in experimental hut (Phase II) trials.


A two-arm non-inferiority cluster randomized controlled trial (Phase III) will be undertaken in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania. VECTRON™ T500 will be compared to the IRS product Fludora® Fusion (clothianidin 50% WP + deltamethrin 6.25% WP). The predominant malaria vectors in the study area are pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s.An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Sixteen village clusters will be pair-matched on baseline vector densities and allocated to reference and intervention arms. Consenting households in the intervention arm will be sprayed with VECTRON™ T500 and those in the reference arm will be sprayed with Fludora® Fusion. Each month, CDC light traps will collect mosquitoes to estimate changes in vector density, indoor biting, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIR). Susceptibility to IRS active ingredients will be assessed using World Health Organisation (WHO) bottle bioassays. Target site and metabolic resistance mechanisms will be characterised among Anopheles field populations from both trial arms. Residual efficacy of both IRS products will be monitored for 12 months post intervention. Questionnaire and focus group discussions will explore factors that influence adherence, adverse effects and benefits of IRS.


This protocol describes a large-scale non-inferiority evaluation of a novel IRS product to reduce the density and EIR of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles vectors. If VECTRON™ T500 proves non-inferior to Fludora® Fusion, it will be considered as an additional vector control product for malaria prevention and insecticide resistance management.