Prevalence and patient related factors associated with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage and infection among pediatric patients in Tanzania

Nuru Letara, James Samwel Ngocho, Nahid Karami, Sia E. Msuya, Balthazar Nyombi, Nancy A. Kassam, Susann Skovbjerg, Christina Åhren, Rune Philemon & Blandina T. Mmbaga
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Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) is increasing worldwide, though less documented in low-income settings. Here we determined the prevalence of EPE infection and carriage, and patient factors associated with EPE-carriage among pediatric patients in three health care levels in Tanzania. Between January and April 2016, 350 febrile children (median age 21 months) seeking care at a university or a regional referral hospital, or a health centre in Moshi municipality, Tanzania, were included. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. Rectal swabs and blood cultures were collected from all children (n = 350) and urinary samples from 259 children at admission. ESBL-phenotype and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates. Only one EPE case (E. coli) in blood and four in urine (one E. coli and three K. pneumoniae) were found, whereas (n = 90, 26%) of the children were colonized in feces (ESBL-E. colin = 76, ESBL-K. pneumoniae, n = 14). High resistance rates were seen in fecal ESBL-E. coli (n = 76) against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (n = 69, 91%), gentamicin (n = 51, 67%), ciprofloxacin (n = 39, 51%) and chloramphenicol (n = 27, 35%) whereas most isolates were sensitive to amikacin (n = 71, 93%). Similar rates were seen for fecal ESBL-K. pneumoniae. Resistance to first line antibiotics were also very high in fecal E. coli not producing ESBL. No sociodemographic factor was associated with EPE-carriage. Children colonized with EPE were younger than 12 months (n = 43, 48%) and often treated with antibiotics (n = 40, 44%) in the previous two months. After adjustment for age children admitted to the intensive care unit had higher odds of EPE fecal carriage compared with those in the general wards (OR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.4–10.4). Despite comparatively high rates of fecal EPE-carriage and previous antibiotic treatment, clinical EPE cases were rare in the febrile children. The very high resistant rates for the EPE and the non-ESBL producing E. coli to commonly used antibiotics are worrying and demand implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs in all levels of health care in Tanzania.