Protocol for a four parallel-arm, single-blind, cluster-randomised trial to assess the effectiveness of three types of dual active ingredient treated nets compared to pyrethroid-only long-lasting insecticidal nets to prevent malaria transmitted by pyrethr

Jacklin F. Mosha,corresponding author1 Manisha A. Kulkarni,2 Louisa A. Messenger,3 Mark Rowland,3 Nancy Matowo,3 Catherine Pitt,4 Eliud Lukole,1,3 Monica Taljaard,5 Charles Thickstun,2 Alphaxard Manjurano,1 Franklin W. Mosha,6 Immo Kleinschmidt,7 and Natacha Protopopoff3
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The massive scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has led to major reductions in malaria burden in many sub-Saharan African countries. This progress is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance among malaria vectors. This cluster-randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) compares three of the most promising dual active ingredients LLINs (dual-AI LLINs), which incorporate mixtures of insecticides or insecticide synergists to standard LLINs in an area of pyrethroid insecticide resistance.


A four-arm, single-blinded, c-RCT will evaluate the effectiveness of three types of dual-AI LLINs (1) Royal Guard, combining two insecticides, pyriproxyfen and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin; (2) Interceptor G2, combining chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin; (3) Olyset Plus, an LLIN combining a synergist, piperonyl butoxide and the pyrethroid permethrin, compared with; (4) Interceptor LN, a standard LLIN containing the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin as the sole AI. The primary outcomes are malaria infection prevalence in children aged 6 months–14 years and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), as a standard measure of malaria transmission at 24 months postintervention and cost-effectiveness.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethical approval was received from the institutional review boards of the Tanzanian National Institute for Medical Research, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and University of Ottawa. Study findings will be actively disseminated via reports and presentations to stakeholders, local community leaders, and relevant national and international policy makers as well as through conferences, and peer-reviewed publications.