Role of cattle treated with deltamethrine in areas with a high population of Anopheles arabiensis in Moshi, Northern Tanzania

Aneth M Mahande, Franklin W Mosha, Johnson M Mahande and Eliningaya J Kweka. Malaria Journal 2007, 6:109
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Background: Malaria control measures were initiated from in October 2005 to August 2006 in the Lower Moshi irrigation schemes, Tanzania. This manuscript reports on the entomological evaluation of the impact of pyrethroid-treated cattle in reducing the population of the Anopheles arabiensis for selected houses in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme.Methods: Cattle were sprayed with the pyrethroid (deltamethrin) acaricide. Grazing and non-grazing cattles were compared and assessed for difference in knockdown resistance (kdr) time using cone or contact bioassay and residual effect (mortality). In experimental huts, mortality was compared between the huts with treated and untreated cattle.Results: Results from contact bioassays of cattle treated with deltamethrin showed a knockdown effect of 50% within 21 days for grazing cattle and 29 days for non-grazing cattle. Residual effect at 50% was achieved within 17 days for grazing cattle compared to 24 days for inshed cattle. In discussing the results, reference has been made to the exophilic and zoophilic tendencies of An. arabiensis, which are conducive for zooprophylaxis.Experimental studies in Verandah huts at Mabogini compared An. arabiensis and Culex spp collected from huts with different baits, i e. human, untreated cow and treated cow. Results indicate higher mortality rates in mosquitoes collected from the hut containing the treated cow (mean = 2) compared to huts with untreated cow (mean = 0.3) and human (mean = 0.8). A significantly higher number of Culex spp. was recorded in huts with treated cows compared to the rest.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the role of cattle treated with pyrethroid in the control of malaria and reduction of vector density. It showed that, in areas with a predominant An. arabiensis population, cattle should be placed close to dwelling houses in order to maximize the effects of zooprophylaxis. Protective effects of cattle can further be enhanced by regular treatment with pyrethroids at least every three weeks. This paper demonstrates that cattle can be considered as Insecticide-Treated Material (ITM) as long as acaricide treatment is conducted regularly