Seroprevalence of hepatitis b surface antigen and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Moshi municipality, Kilimanjaro region 2012

Panga, B.C
Publication year: 

Background Potential mother to child transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern, because of the associated long-term morbidity and mortality of these infections. Most chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections occur during childhood, either from infected mother to child (perinatal transmission) or from one child to another (horizontal transmission). The presence of Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg) among HBV positive mothers is an indicator of active infection and the potential for mother to child transmission of HBV infection. This study investigated HBeAg among Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) positive among women attending antenatal to access the potential risk of mother to child transmission of the virus

Materials and Methodology This was a cross- sectional study that was conducted among 346 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Moshi Municipality between January and March 2012. Participants were enrolled consecutively after consenting. Interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding potential risk factors. Blood was collected and screened for hepatitis B screening by Antigen Rapid test strip (HBsAg) and positive sample was subjected to ELFA (BIOMUREX-SA) for HBeAg detection. Syphilis was tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR). HIV was tested by SD BIOLINE and Determine, discordant result was resolved with Unigold. IgG antibodies to HCV were detected by ONE STEP Ant-HCV Test technique (SD BIOLINE HCV). Data was coded, entered, cleaned, validated and analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1

Results A total of 346 pregnant women were recruited. Their mean age was 24.7 (SD 5,4) years. About 36 pregnant women (10%) had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 3 (0.8%) had multiple infections. Overall the seroprevalence of HBV was 2.0%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HCV and syphilis were 4.9%, 0.6%, and 2.9%, respectively. One (14.3%) had HBV and syphilis co-infection. Among the seven women who were HBsAg seropositive one (14.3%) was positive for HBe antigen. The risk factors for HBV were age vii group 30-34 yrs, mutiple partners and scarification (OR 4.9, 95%CI 1.01-24.13, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.01-9.42, and OR 10.1, 95%CI 1.89-54.20 respectively)

Conclusion and Recommendations Based on the prevalence of HBeAg among the HBsAg pregnant mothers there is a need of screening all pregnant women for HBsAg and for providing early immunization at birth to infants of HBeAg infected mothers.