Susceptibility status of malaria vectors to insecticides commonly used for malaria control in Tanzania

Kabula B, Tungu P, Matowo J, Kitau J, Mweya C, Emidi B, Masue D, Sindato C, Malima R, Minja J, Msangi S, Njau R, Mosha F, Magesa S, Kisinza W
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to monitor the insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors in 12 sentinel districts of Tanzania.

METHODS: WHO standard methods were used to detect knock-down and mortality in the wild female Anopheles mosquitoes collected in sentinel districts. The WHO diagnostic doses of 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.05% lambdacyhalothrin, 0.75% permethrin and 4% DDT were used.

RESULTS: The major malaria vectors in Tanzania, Anopheles gambiae s.l., were susceptible (mortality rate of 98-100%) to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and DDT in most of the surveyed sites. However, some sites recorded marginal susceptibility (mortality rate of 80-97%); Ilala showed resistance to DDT (mortality rate of 65% [95% CI, 54-74]), and Moshi showed resistance to lambdacyhalothrin (mortality rate of 73% [95% CI, 69-76]) and permethrin (mortality rate of 77% [95% CI, 73-80]).

CONCLUSIONS: The sustained susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroid in Tanzania is encouraging for successful malaria control with Insecticide-treated nets and IRS. However, the emergency of focal points with insecticide resistance is alarming. Continued monitoring is essential to ensure early containment of resistance, particularly in areas that recorded resistance or marginal susceptibility and those with heavy agricultural and public health use of insecticides.